Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 家居产品不促销就卖不出去 明码标价为何执行难.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
The new numbers, reported by a tracking initiative called the Global Carbon Project and published in the journal Nature Geoscience, came on the eve of a United Nations summit meeting meant to harness fresh political ambition in tackling climate change. Scientists said the figures showed that vastly greater efforts would be needed to get long-term global warming within tolerable limits.
Forget giving at least two weeks notice, finessing an exit interview, and tactfully networking your way out the door. Some people are in too big a hurry for any of that.
Harry Styles, 'Harry Styles'
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
SETTING: This house is in Kenwood, a neighborhood of 19th- and 20th-century Tudors, Mediterraneans, Victorians and colonial-style houses between Cedar Lake and Lake of the Isles, in the city’s Chain of Lakes. Roads are curving; sidewalks are lined with maple and ash trees. According to the listing agent, many of the neighborhood’s older houses have been restored, while houses built within the last 30 years have been torn down and replaced.
We will make big moves to improve the environment for foreign investors.
The writer is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment and a former World Bank country director for China. Read other predictions for the world economy, politics and finance in 2012 at www.ft.com/thealist
The three bubbles: The Asian Bubble in the early '90s, Dot-com Bubble of the late '90s and what Juckes calls the Great Big Credit Bubble that triggered the 2008 Wall Street meltdown.
The rest of the top 10 2016 highest-paid actresses are:
8. How to dip dye hair
If you think Kevin Durant is scrawny now, just take a look at his tiny physique back when he played at Montrose Christian.
However, Baty said the stabilization of Chinese universities' rankings is no cause for alarm. "Continued investment built on decades of spending, and increased internationalization in Chinese higher education will no doubt ensure China's universities continue to strengthen," he said.
Many economists doubt the European Central Bank will increase the size of its 1.46tn asset-purchase programme in 2016 despite assurances by ECB chief Mario Draghi that additional monetary stimulus is still on the table.
The study is available online.